7. WebDriver API

Note

This is not an official documentation. Official API documentation is available here.

This chapter covers all the interfaces of Selenium WebDriver.

Recommended Import Style

The API definitions in this chapter show the absolute location of classes. However, the recommended import style is as given below:

from selenium import webdriver

Then, you can access the classes like this:

webdriver.Firefox
webdriver.FirefoxProfile
webdriver.Chrome
webdriver.ChromeOptions
webdriver.Ie
webdriver.Opera
webdriver.PhantomJS
webdriver.Remote
webdriver.DesiredCapabilities
webdriver.ActionChains
webdriver.TouchActions
webdriver.Proxy

The special keys class (Keys) can be imported like this:

from selenium.webdriver.common.keys import Keys

The exception classes can be imported like this (Replace the TheNameOfTheExceptionClass with the actual class name given below):

from selenium.common.exceptions import [TheNameOfTheExceptionClass]

Conventions used in the API

Some attributes are callable (or methods) and others are non-callable (properties). All the callable attributes are ending with round brackets.

Here is an example for property:

  • current_url

    URL of the currently loaded page.

    Usage:

    driver.current_url
    

Here is an example of a method:

  • close()

    Closes the current window.

    Usage:

    driver.close()
    

7.1. Exceptions

Exceptions that may happen in all the webdriver code.

exception selenium.common.exceptions.ElementClickInterceptedException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

The Element Click command could not be completed because the element receiving the events is obscuring the element that was requested clicked.

exception selenium.common.exceptions.ElementNotInteractableException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.InvalidElementStateException

Thrown when an element is present in the DOM but interactions with that element will hit another element do to paint order

exception selenium.common.exceptions.ElementNotSelectableException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.InvalidElementStateException

Thrown when trying to select an unselectable element.

For example, selecting a ‘script’ element.

exception selenium.common.exceptions.ElementNotVisibleException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.InvalidElementStateException

Thrown when an element is present on the DOM, but it is not visible, and so is not able to be interacted with.

Most commonly encountered when trying to click or read text of an element that is hidden from view.

exception selenium.common.exceptions.ErrorInResponseException(response, msg)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

Thrown when an error has occurred on the server side.

This may happen when communicating with the firefox extension or the remote driver server.

__init__(response, msg)
exception selenium.common.exceptions.ImeActivationFailedException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

Thrown when activating an IME engine has failed.

exception selenium.common.exceptions.ImeNotAvailableException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

Thrown when IME support is not available. This exception is thrown for every IME-related method call if IME support is not available on the machine.

exception selenium.common.exceptions.InsecureCertificateException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

Navigation caused the user agent to hit a certificate warning, which is usually the result of an expired or invalid TLS certificate.

exception selenium.common.exceptions.InvalidArgumentException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

The arguments passed to a command are either invalid or malformed.

exception selenium.common.exceptions.InvalidCookieDomainException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

Thrown when attempting to add a cookie under a different domain than the current URL.

exception selenium.common.exceptions.InvalidCoordinatesException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

The coordinates provided to an interactions operation are invalid.

exception selenium.common.exceptions.InvalidElementStateException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

exception selenium.common.exceptions.InvalidSelectorException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.NoSuchElementException

Thrown when the selector which is used to find an element does not return a WebElement. Currently this only happens when the selector is an xpath expression and it is either syntactically invalid (i.e. it is not a xpath expression) or the expression does not select WebElements (e.g. “count(//input)”).

exception selenium.common.exceptions.InvalidSessionIdException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

Occurs if the given session id is not in the list of active sessions, meaning the session either does not exist or that it’s not active.

exception selenium.common.exceptions.InvalidSwitchToTargetException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

Thrown when frame or window target to be switched doesn’t exist.

exception selenium.common.exceptions.JavascriptException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

An error occurred while executing JavaScript supplied by the user.

exception selenium.common.exceptions.MoveTargetOutOfBoundsException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

Thrown when the target provided to the ActionsChains move() method is invalid, i.e. out of document.

exception selenium.common.exceptions.NoAlertPresentException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

Thrown when switching to no presented alert.

This can be caused by calling an operation on the Alert() class when an alert is not yet on the screen.

exception selenium.common.exceptions.NoSuchAttributeException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

Thrown when the attribute of element could not be found.

You may want to check if the attribute exists in the particular browser you are testing against. Some browsers may have different property names for the same property. (IE8’s .innerText vs. Firefox .textContent)

exception selenium.common.exceptions.NoSuchCookieException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

No cookie matching the given path name was found amongst the associated cookies of the current browsing context’s active document.

exception selenium.common.exceptions.NoSuchElementException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

Thrown when element could not be found.

If you encounter this exception, you may want to check the following:
  • Check your selector used in your find_by…
  • Element may not yet be on the screen at the time of the find operation, (webpage is still loading) see selenium.webdriver.support.wait.WebDriverWait() for how to write a wait wrapper to wait for an element to appear.
exception selenium.common.exceptions.NoSuchFrameException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.InvalidSwitchToTargetException

Thrown when frame target to be switched doesn’t exist.

exception selenium.common.exceptions.NoSuchWindowException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.InvalidSwitchToTargetException

Thrown when window target to be switched doesn’t exist.

To find the current set of active window handles, you can get a list of the active window handles in the following way:

print driver.window_handles
exception selenium.common.exceptions.RemoteDriverServerException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

exception selenium.common.exceptions.ScreenshotException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

A screen capture was made impossible.

exception selenium.common.exceptions.SessionNotCreatedException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

A new session could not be created.

exception selenium.common.exceptions.StaleElementReferenceException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

Thrown when a reference to an element is now “stale”.

Stale means the element no longer appears on the DOM of the page.

Possible causes of StaleElementReferenceException include, but not limited to:
  • You are no longer on the same page, or the page may have refreshed since the element was located.
  • The element may have been removed and re-added to the screen, since it was located. Such as an element being relocated. This can happen typically with a javascript framework when values are updated and the node is rebuilt.
  • Element may have been inside an iframe or another context which was refreshed.
exception selenium.common.exceptions.TimeoutException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

Thrown when a command does not complete in enough time.

exception selenium.common.exceptions.UnableToSetCookieException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

Thrown when a driver fails to set a cookie.

exception selenium.common.exceptions.UnexpectedAlertPresentException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None, alert_text=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

Thrown when an unexpected alert is appeared.

Usually raised when when an expected modal is blocking webdriver form executing any more commands.

__init__(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None, alert_text=None)
exception selenium.common.exceptions.UnexpectedTagNameException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

Thrown when a support class did not get an expected web element.

exception selenium.common.exceptions.UnknownMethodException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException

The requested command matched a known URL but did not match an method for that URL.

exception selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

Bases: exceptions.Exception

Base webdriver exception.

__init__(msg=None, screen=None, stacktrace=None)

7.2. Action Chains

The ActionChains implementation,

class selenium.webdriver.common.action_chains.ActionChains(driver)

Bases: object

ActionChains are a way to automate low level interactions such as mouse movements, mouse button actions, key press, and context menu interactions. This is useful for doing more complex actions like hover over and drag and drop.

Generate user actions.
When you call methods for actions on the ActionChains object, the actions are stored in a queue in the ActionChains object. When you call perform(), the events are fired in the order they are queued up.

ActionChains can be used in a chain pattern:

menu = driver.find_element_by_css_selector(".nav")
hidden_submenu = driver.find_element_by_css_selector(".nav #submenu1")

ActionChains(driver).move_to_element(menu).click(hidden_submenu).perform()

Or actions can be queued up one by one, then performed.:

menu = driver.find_element_by_css_selector(".nav")
hidden_submenu = driver.find_element_by_css_selector(".nav #submenu1")

actions = ActionChains(driver)
actions.move_to_element(menu)
actions.click(hidden_submenu)
actions.perform()

Either way, the actions are performed in the order they are called, one after another.

__init__(driver)

Creates a new ActionChains.

Args:
  • driver: The WebDriver instance which performs user actions.
click(on_element=None)

Clicks an element.

Args:
  • on_element: The element to click. If None, clicks on current mouse position.
click_and_hold(on_element=None)

Holds down the left mouse button on an element.

Args:
  • on_element: The element to mouse down. If None, clicks on current mouse position.
context_click(on_element=None)

Performs a context-click (right click) on an element.

Args:
  • on_element: The element to context-click. If None, clicks on current mouse position.
double_click(on_element=None)

Double-clicks an element.

Args:
  • on_element: The element to double-click. If None, clicks on current mouse position.
drag_and_drop(source, target)
Holds down the left mouse button on the source element,
then moves to the target element and releases the mouse button.
Args:
  • source: The element to mouse down.
  • target: The element to mouse up.
drag_and_drop_by_offset(source, xoffset, yoffset)
Holds down the left mouse button on the source element,
then moves to the target offset and releases the mouse button.
Args:
  • source: The element to mouse down.
  • xoffset: X offset to move to.
  • yoffset: Y offset to move to.
key_down(value, element=None)
Sends a key press only, without releasing it.
Should only be used with modifier keys (Control, Alt and Shift).
Args:
  • value: The modifier key to send. Values are defined in Keys class.
  • element: The element to send keys. If None, sends a key to current focused element.

Example, pressing ctrl+c:

ActionChains(driver).key_down(Keys.CONTROL).send_keys('c').key_up(Keys.CONTROL).perform()
key_up(value, element=None)

Releases a modifier key.

Args:
  • value: The modifier key to send. Values are defined in Keys class.
  • element: The element to send keys. If None, sends a key to current focused element.

Example, pressing ctrl+c:

ActionChains(driver).key_down(Keys.CONTROL).send_keys('c').key_up(Keys.CONTROL).perform()
move_by_offset(xoffset, yoffset)

Moving the mouse to an offset from current mouse position.

Args:
  • xoffset: X offset to move to, as a positive or negative integer.
  • yoffset: Y offset to move to, as a positive or negative integer.
move_to_element(to_element)

Moving the mouse to the middle of an element.

Args:
  • to_element: The WebElement to move to.
move_to_element_with_offset(to_element, xoffset, yoffset)
Move the mouse by an offset of the specified element.
Offsets are relative to the top-left corner of the element.
Args:
  • to_element: The WebElement to move to.
  • xoffset: X offset to move to.
  • yoffset: Y offset to move to.
pause(seconds)

Pause all inputs for the specified duration in seconds

perform()

Performs all stored actions.

release(on_element=None)

Releasing a held mouse button on an element.

Args:
  • on_element: The element to mouse up. If None, releases on current mouse position.
reset_actions()

Clears actions that are already stored on the remote end.

send_keys(*keys_to_send)

Sends keys to current focused element.

Args:
  • keys_to_send: The keys to send. Modifier keys constants can be found in the ‘Keys’ class.
send_keys_to_element(element, *keys_to_send)

Sends keys to an element.

Args:
  • element: The element to send keys.
  • keys_to_send: The keys to send. Modifier keys constants can be found in the ‘Keys’ class.

7.3. Alerts

The Alert implementation.

class selenium.webdriver.common.alert.Alert(driver)

Bases: object

Allows to work with alerts.

Use this class to interact with alert prompts. It contains methods for dismissing, accepting, inputting, and getting text from alert prompts.

Accepting / Dismissing alert prompts:

Alert(driver).accept()
Alert(driver).dismiss()

Inputting a value into an alert prompt:

name_prompt = Alert(driver) name_prompt.send_keys(“Willian Shakesphere”) name_prompt.accept()

Reading a the text of a prompt for verification:

alert_text = Alert(driver).text self.assertEqual(“Do you wish to quit?”, alert_text)
__init__(driver)

Creates a new Alert.

Args:
  • driver: The WebDriver instance which performs user actions.
accept()

Accepts the alert available.

Usage:: Alert(driver).accept() # Confirm a alert dialog.

authenticate(username, password)

Send the username / password to an Authenticated dialog (like with Basic HTTP Auth). Implicitly ‘clicks ok’

Usage:: driver.switch_to.alert.authenticate(‘cheese’, ‘secretGouda’)

Args:-username: string to be set in the username section of the dialog -password: string to be set in the password section of the dialog
dismiss()

Dismisses the alert available.

send_keys(keysToSend)

Send Keys to the Alert.

Args:
  • keysToSend: The text to be sent to Alert.
text

Gets the text of the Alert.

7.4. Special Keys

The Keys implementation.

class selenium.webdriver.common.keys.Keys

Bases: object

Set of special keys codes.

ADD = u'\ue025'
ALT = u'\ue00a'
ARROW_DOWN = u'\ue015'
ARROW_LEFT = u'\ue012'
ARROW_RIGHT = u'\ue014'
ARROW_UP = u'\ue013'
BACKSPACE = u'\ue003'
BACK_SPACE = u'\ue003'
CANCEL = u'\ue001'
CLEAR = u'\ue005'
COMMAND = u'\ue03d'
CONTROL = u'\ue009'
DECIMAL = u'\ue028'
DELETE = u'\ue017'
DIVIDE = u'\ue029'
DOWN = u'\ue015'
END = u'\ue010'
ENTER = u'\ue007'
EQUALS = u'\ue019'
ESCAPE = u'\ue00c'
F1 = u'\ue031'
F10 = u'\ue03a'
F11 = u'\ue03b'
F12 = u'\ue03c'
F2 = u'\ue032'
F3 = u'\ue033'
F4 = u'\ue034'
F5 = u'\ue035'
F6 = u'\ue036'
F7 = u'\ue037'
F8 = u'\ue038'
F9 = u'\ue039'
HELP = u'\ue002'
HOME = u'\ue011'
INSERT = u'\ue016'
LEFT = u'\ue012'
LEFT_ALT = u'\ue00a'
LEFT_CONTROL = u'\ue009'
LEFT_SHIFT = u'\ue008'
META = u'\ue03d'
MULTIPLY = u'\ue024'
NULL = u'\ue000'
NUMPAD0 = u'\ue01a'
NUMPAD1 = u'\ue01b'
NUMPAD2 = u'\ue01c'
NUMPAD3 = u'\ue01d'
NUMPAD4 = u'\ue01e'
NUMPAD5 = u'\ue01f'
NUMPAD6 = u'\ue020'
NUMPAD7 = u'\ue021'
NUMPAD8 = u'\ue022'
NUMPAD9 = u'\ue023'
PAGE_DOWN = u'\ue00f'
PAGE_UP = u'\ue00e'
PAUSE = u'\ue00b'
RETURN = u'\ue006'
RIGHT = u'\ue014'
SEMICOLON = u'\ue018'
SEPARATOR = u'\ue026'
SHIFT = u'\ue008'
SPACE = u'\ue00d'
SUBTRACT = u'\ue027'
TAB = u'\ue004'
UP = u'\ue013'

7.5. Locate elements By

These are the attributes which can be used to locate elements. See the Locating Elements chapter for example usages.

The By implementation.

class selenium.webdriver.common.by.By

Bases: object

Set of supported locator strategies.

CLASS_NAME = 'class name'
CSS_SELECTOR = 'css selector'
ID = 'id'
NAME = 'name'
TAG_NAME = 'tag name'
XPATH = 'xpath'

7.6. Desired Capabilities

See the Using Selenium with remote WebDriver section for example usages of desired capabilities.

The Desired Capabilities implementation.

class selenium.webdriver.common.desired_capabilities.DesiredCapabilities

Bases: object

Set of default supported desired capabilities.

Use this as a starting point for creating a desired capabilities object for requesting remote webdrivers for connecting to selenium server or selenium grid.

Usage Example:

from selenium import webdriver

selenium_grid_url = "http://198.0.0.1:4444/wd/hub"

# Create a desired capabilities object as a starting point.
capabilities = DesiredCapabilities.FIREFOX.copy()
capabilities['platform'] = "WINDOWS"
capabilities['version'] = "10"

# Instantiate an instance of Remote WebDriver with the desired capabilities.
driver = webdriver.Remote(desired_capabilities=capabilities,
                          command_executor=selenium_grid_url)

Note: Always use ‘.copy()’ on the DesiredCapabilities object to avoid the side effects of altering the Global class instance.

ANDROID = {'platform': 'ANDROID', 'browserName': 'android', 'version': ''}
CHROME = {'platform': 'ANY', 'browserName': 'chrome', 'version': ''}
EDGE = {'platform': 'WINDOWS', 'browserName': 'MicrosoftEdge', 'version': ''}
FIREFOX = {'acceptInsecureCerts': True, 'browserName': 'firefox', 'marionette': True}
HTMLUNIT = {'platform': 'ANY', 'browserName': 'htmlunit', 'version': ''}
HTMLUNITWITHJS = {'platform': 'ANY', 'browserName': 'htmlunit', 'version': 'firefox', 'javascriptEnabled': True}
INTERNETEXPLORER = {'platform': 'WINDOWS', 'browserName': 'internet explorer', 'version': ''}
IPAD = {'platform': 'MAC', 'browserName': 'iPad', 'version': ''}
IPHONE = {'platform': 'MAC', 'browserName': 'iPhone', 'version': ''}
OPERA = {'platform': 'ANY', 'browserName': 'opera', 'version': ''}
PHANTOMJS = {'platform': 'ANY', 'browserName': 'phantomjs', 'version': '', 'javascriptEnabled': True}
SAFARI = {'platform': 'MAC', 'browserName': 'safari', 'version': ''}
WEBKITGTK = {'platform': 'ANY', 'browserName': 'MiniBrowser', 'version': ''}

7.7. Touch Actions

The Touch Actions implementation

class selenium.webdriver.common.touch_actions.TouchActions(driver)

Bases: object

Generate touch actions. Works like ActionChains; actions are stored in the TouchActions object and are fired with perform().

__init__(driver)

Creates a new TouchActions object.

Args:
  • driver: The WebDriver instance which performs user actions. It should be with touchscreen enabled.
double_tap(on_element)

Double taps on a given element.

Args:
  • on_element: The element to tap.
flick(xspeed, yspeed)

Flicks, starting anywhere on the screen.

Args:
  • xspeed: The X speed in pixels per second.
  • yspeed: The Y speed in pixels per second.
flick_element(on_element, xoffset, yoffset, speed)

Flick starting at on_element, and moving by the xoffset and yoffset with specified speed.

Args:
  • on_element: Flick will start at center of element.
  • xoffset: X offset to flick to.
  • yoffset: Y offset to flick to.
  • speed: Pixels per second to flick.
long_press(on_element)

Long press on an element.

Args:
  • on_element: The element to long press.
move(xcoord, ycoord)

Move held tap to specified location.

Args:
  • xcoord: X Coordinate to move.
  • ycoord: Y Coordinate to move.
perform()

Performs all stored actions.

release(xcoord, ycoord)

Release previously issued tap ‘and hold’ command at specified location.

Args:
  • xcoord: X Coordinate to release.
  • ycoord: Y Coordinate to release.
scroll(xoffset, yoffset)

Touch and scroll, moving by xoffset and yoffset.

Args:
  • xoffset: X offset to scroll to.
  • yoffset: Y offset to scroll to.
scroll_from_element(on_element, xoffset, yoffset)

Touch and scroll starting at on_element, moving by xoffset and yoffset.

Args:
  • on_element: The element where scroll starts.
  • xoffset: X offset to scroll to.
  • yoffset: Y offset to scroll to.
tap(on_element)

Taps on a given element.

Args:
  • on_element: The element to tap.
tap_and_hold(xcoord, ycoord)

Touch down at given coordinates.

Args:
  • xcoord: X Coordinate to touch down.
  • ycoord: Y Coordinate to touch down.

7.8. Proxy

The Proxy implementation.

class selenium.webdriver.common.proxy.Proxy(raw=None)

Bases: object

Proxy contains information about proxy type and necessary proxy settings.

__init__(raw=None)

Creates a new Proxy.

Args:
  • raw: raw proxy data. If None, default class values are used.
add_to_capabilities(capabilities)

Adds proxy information as capability in specified capabilities.

Args:
  • capabilities: The capabilities to which proxy will be added.
auto_detect

Returns autodetect setting.

autodetect = False
ftpProxy = ''
ftp_proxy

Returns ftp proxy setting.

httpProxy = ''
http_proxy

Returns http proxy setting.

noProxy = ''
no_proxy

Returns noproxy setting.

proxyAutoconfigUrl = ''
proxyType = {'ff_value': 6, 'string': 'UNSPECIFIED'}
proxy_autoconfig_url

Returns proxy autoconfig url setting.

proxy_type

Returns proxy type as ProxyType.

socksPassword = ''
socksProxy = ''
socksUsername = ''
socks_password

Returns socks proxy password setting.

socks_proxy

Returns socks proxy setting.

socks_username

Returns socks proxy username setting.

sslProxy = ''
ssl_proxy

Returns https proxy setting.

class selenium.webdriver.common.proxy.ProxyType

Set of possible types of proxy.

Each proxy type has 2 properties:
‘ff_value’ is value of Firefox profile preference, ‘string’ is id of proxy type.
classmethod load(value)
AUTODETECT = {'ff_value': 4, 'string': 'AUTODETECT'}
DIRECT = {'ff_value': 0, 'string': 'DIRECT'}
MANUAL = {'ff_value': 1, 'string': 'MANUAL'}
PAC = {'ff_value': 2, 'string': 'PAC'}
RESERVED_1 = {'ff_value': 3, 'string': 'RESERVED1'}
SYSTEM = {'ff_value': 5, 'string': 'SYSTEM'}
UNSPECIFIED = {'ff_value': 6, 'string': 'UNSPECIFIED'}
class selenium.webdriver.common.proxy.ProxyTypeFactory

Factory for proxy types.

static make(ff_value, string)

7.9. Utilities

The Utils methods.

selenium.webdriver.common.utils.find_connectable_ip(host, port=None)

Resolve a hostname to an IP, preferring IPv4 addresses.

We prefer IPv4 so that we don’t change behavior from previous IPv4-only implementations, and because some drivers (e.g., FirefoxDriver) do not support IPv6 connections.

If the optional port number is provided, only IPs that listen on the given port are considered.

Args:
  • host - A hostname.
  • port - Optional port number.
Returns:

A single IP address, as a string. If any IPv4 address is found, one is returned. Otherwise, if any IPv6 address is found, one is returned. If neither, then None is returned.

selenium.webdriver.common.utils.free_port()

Determines a free port using sockets.

selenium.webdriver.common.utils.is_connectable(port, host='localhost')

Tries to connect to the server at port to see if it is running.

Args:
  • port - The port to connect.
selenium.webdriver.common.utils.is_url_connectable(port)

Tries to connect to the HTTP server at /status path and specified port to see if it responds successfully.

Args:
  • port - The port to connect.
selenium.webdriver.common.utils.join_host_port(host, port)

Joins a hostname and port together.

This is a minimal implementation intended to cope with IPv6 literals. For example, _join_host_port(‘::1’, 80) == ‘[::1]:80’.

Args:
  • host - A hostname.
  • port - An integer port.
selenium.webdriver.common.utils.keys_to_typing(value)

Processes the values that will be typed in the element.

7.10. Service

class selenium.webdriver.common.service.Service(executable, port=0, log_file=-3, env=None, start_error_message='')

Bases: object

__init__(executable, port=0, log_file=-3, env=None, start_error_message='')
assert_process_still_running()
command_line_args()
is_connectable()
send_remote_shutdown_command()
start()

Starts the Service.

Exceptions:
  • WebDriverException : Raised either when it can’t start the service or when it can’t connect to the service
stop()

Stops the service.

service_url

Gets the url of the Service

7.11. Application Cache

The ApplicationCache implementaion.

class selenium.webdriver.common.html5.application_cache.ApplicationCache(driver)

Bases: object

__init__(driver)

Creates a new Aplication Cache.

Args:
  • driver: The WebDriver instance which performs user actions.
CHECKING = 2
DOWNLOADING = 3
IDLE = 1
OBSOLETE = 5
UNCACHED = 0
UPDATE_READY = 4
status

Returns a current status of application cache.

7.12. Firefox WebDriver

class selenium.webdriver.firefox.webdriver.WebDriver(firefox_profile=None, firefox_binary=None, timeout=30, capabilities=None, proxy=None, executable_path='geckodriver', options=None, log_path='geckodriver.log', firefox_options=None, service_args=None)

Bases: selenium.webdriver.remote.webdriver.WebDriver

__init__(firefox_profile=None, firefox_binary=None, timeout=30, capabilities=None, proxy=None, executable_path='geckodriver', options=None, log_path='geckodriver.log', firefox_options=None, service_args=None)

Starts a new local session of Firefox.

Based on the combination and specificity of the various keyword arguments, a capabilities dictionary will be constructed that is passed to the remote end.

The keyword arguments given to this constructor are helpers to more easily allow Firefox WebDriver sessions to be customised with different options. They are mapped on to a capabilities dictionary that is passed on to the remote end.

As some of the options, such as firefox_profile and options.profile are mutually exclusive, precedence is given from how specific the setting is. capabilities is the least specific keyword argument, followed by options, followed by firefox_binary and firefox_profile.

In practice this means that if firefox_profile and options.profile are both set, the selected profile instance will always come from the most specific variable. In this case that would be firefox_profile. This will result in options.profile to be ignored because it is considered a less specific setting than the top-level firefox_profile keyword argument. Similarily, if you had specified a capabilities[“moz:firefoxOptions”][“profile”] Base64 string, this would rank below options.profile.

Parameters:
  • firefox_profile – Instance of FirefoxProfile object or a string. If undefined, a fresh profile will be created in a temporary location on the system.
  • firefox_binary – Instance of FirefoxBinary or full path to the Firefox binary. If undefined, the system default Firefox installation will be used.
  • timeout – Time to wait for Firefox to launch when using the extension connection.
  • capabilities – Dictionary of desired capabilities.
  • proxy – The proxy settings to us when communicating with Firefox via the extension connection.
  • executable_path – Full path to override which geckodriver binary to use for Firefox 47.0.1 and greater, which defaults to picking up the binary from the system path.
  • options – Instance of options.Options.
  • log_path – Where to log information from the driver.
context(*args, **kwds)

Sets the context that Selenium commands are running in using a with statement. The state of the context on the server is saved before entering the block, and restored upon exiting it.

Parameters:context – Context, may be one of the class properties CONTEXT_CHROME or CONTEXT_CONTENT.

Usage example:

with selenium.context(selenium.CONTEXT_CHROME):
    # chrome scope
    ... do stuff ...
install_addon(path, temporary=None)

Installs Firefox addon.

Returns identifier of installed addon. This identifier can later be used to uninstall addon.

Parameters:path – Absolute path to the addon that will be installed.
Usage:driver.install_addon(‘/path/to/firebug.xpi’)
quit()

Quits the driver and close every associated window.

set_context(context)
uninstall_addon(identifier)

Uninstalls Firefox addon using its identifier.

Usage:driver.uninstall_addon(‘addon@foo.com’)
CONTEXT_CHROME = 'chrome'
CONTEXT_CONTENT = 'content'
NATIVE_EVENTS_ALLOWED = True
firefox_profile

7.13. Firefox WebDriver Options

class selenium.webdriver.firefox.options.Log

Bases: object

__init__()
to_capabilities()
class selenium.webdriver.firefox.options.Options

Bases: object

__init__()
add_argument(argument)

Add argument to be used for the browser process.

set_headless(headless=True)

Sets the headless argument

Args:
headless: boolean value indicating to set the headless option
set_preference(name, value)

Sets a preference.

to_capabilities()

Marshals the Firefox options to a moz:firefoxOptions object.

KEY = 'moz:firefoxOptions'
arguments

Returns a list of browser process arguments.

binary

Returns the FirefoxBinary instance

binary_location

Returns the location of the binary.

headless

Returns whether or not the headless argument is set

preferences

Returns a dict of preferences.

profile

Returns the Firefox profile to use.

proxy

returns Proxy if set otherwise None.

7.14. Firefox WebDriver Profile

exception selenium.webdriver.firefox.firefox_profile.AddonFormatError

Bases: exceptions.Exception

Exception for not well-formed add-on manifest files

class selenium.webdriver.firefox.firefox_profile.FirefoxProfile(profile_directory=None)

Bases: object

__init__(profile_directory=None)

Initialises a new instance of a Firefox Profile

Args:
  • profile_directory: Directory of profile that you want to use. This defaults to None and will create a new directory when object is created.
add_extension(extension='webdriver.xpi')
set_preference(key, value)

sets the preference that we want in the profile.

set_proxy(proxy)
update_preferences()
ANONYMOUS_PROFILE_NAME = 'WEBDRIVER_ANONYMOUS_PROFILE'
DEFAULT_PREFERENCES = None
accept_untrusted_certs
assume_untrusted_cert_issuer
encoded

A zipped, base64 encoded string of profile directory for use with remote WebDriver JSON wire protocol

native_events_enabled
path

Gets the profile directory that is currently being used

port

Gets the port that WebDriver is working on

7.15. Firefox WebDriver Binary

class selenium.webdriver.firefox.firefox_binary.FirefoxBinary(firefox_path=None, log_file=None)

Bases: object

__init__(firefox_path=None, log_file=None)

Creates a new instance of Firefox binary.

Args:
  • firefox_path - Path to the Firefox executable. By default, it will be detected from the standard locations.
  • log_file - A file object to redirect the firefox process output to. It can be sys.stdout.
    Please note that with parallel run the output won’t be synchronous. By default, it will be redirected to /dev/null.
add_command_line_options(*args)
kill()

Kill the browser.

This is useful when the browser is stuck.

launch_browser(profile, timeout=30)

Launches the browser for the given profile name. It is assumed the profile already exists.

which(fname)

Returns the fully qualified path by searching Path of the given name

NO_FOCUS_LIBRARY_NAME = 'x_ignore_nofocus.so'

7.16. Firefox WebDriver Extension Connection

exception selenium.webdriver.firefox.extension_connection.ExtensionConnectionError

Bases: exceptions.Exception

An internal error occurred int the extension.

Might be caused by bad input or bugs in webdriver

class selenium.webdriver.firefox.extension_connection.ExtensionConnection(host, firefox_profile, firefox_binary=None, timeout=30)

Bases: selenium.webdriver.remote.remote_connection.RemoteConnection

__init__(host, firefox_profile, firefox_binary=None, timeout=30)
connect()

Connects to the extension and retrieves the session id.

classmethod connect_and_quit()

Connects to an running browser and quit immediately.

classmethod is_connectable()

Trys to connect to the extension but do not retrieve context.

quit(sessionId=None)

7.17. Chrome WebDriver

class selenium.webdriver.chrome.webdriver.WebDriver(executable_path='chromedriver', port=0, options=None, service_args=None, desired_capabilities=None, service_log_path=None, chrome_options=None)

Bases: selenium.webdriver.remote.webdriver.WebDriver

Controls the ChromeDriver and allows you to drive the browser.

You will need to download the ChromeDriver executable from http://chromedriver.storage.googleapis.com/index.html

__init__(executable_path='chromedriver', port=0, options=None, service_args=None, desired_capabilities=None, service_log_path=None, chrome_options=None)

Creates a new instance of the chrome driver.

Starts the service and then creates new instance of chrome driver.

Args:
  • executable_path - path to the executable. If the default is used it assumes the executable is in the $PATH
  • port - port you would like the service to run, if left as 0, a free port will be found.
  • desired_capabilities: Dictionary object with non-browser specific capabilities only, such as “proxy” or “loggingPref”.
  • options: this takes an instance of ChromeOptions
create_options()
get_network_conditions()

Gets Chrome network emulation settings.

Returns:

A dict. For example:

{‘latency’: 4, ‘download_throughput’: 2, ‘upload_throughput’: 2, ‘offline’: False}

launch_app(id)

Launches Chrome app specified by id.

quit()

Closes the browser and shuts down the ChromeDriver executable that is started when starting the ChromeDriver

set_network_conditions(**network_conditions)

Sets Chrome network emulation settings.

Args:
  • network_conditions: A dict with conditions specification.
Usage:
driver.set_network_conditions(

offline=False, latency=5, # additional latency (ms) download_throughput=500 * 1024, # maximal throughput upload_throughput=500 * 1024) # maximal throughput

Note: ‘throughput’ can be used to set both (for download and upload).

7.18. Chrome WebDriver Options

class selenium.webdriver.chrome.options.Options

Bases: object

__init__()
add_argument(argument)

Adds an argument to the list

Args:
  • Sets the arguments
add_encoded_extension(extension)

Adds Base64 encoded string with extension data to a list that will be used to extract it to the ChromeDriver

Args:
  • extension: Base64 encoded string with extension data
add_experimental_option(name, value)

Adds an experimental option which is passed to chrome.

Args:
name: The experimental option name. value: The option value.
add_extension(extension)

Adds the path to the extension to a list that will be used to extract it to the ChromeDriver

Args:
  • extension: path to the *.crx file
set_headless(headless=True)

Sets the headless argument

Args:
headless: boolean value indicating to set the headless option
to_capabilities()

Creates a capabilities with all the options that have been set and

returns a dictionary with everything

KEY = 'goog:chromeOptions'
arguments

Returns a list of arguments needed for the browser

binary_location

Returns the location of the binary otherwise an empty string

debugger_address

Returns the address of the remote devtools instance

experimental_options

Returns a dictionary of experimental options for chrome.

extensions

Returns a list of encoded extensions that will be loaded into chrome

headless

Returns whether or not the headless argument is set

7.19. Chrome WebDriver Service

class selenium.webdriver.chrome.service.Service(executable_path, port=0, service_args=None, log_path=None, env=None)

Bases: selenium.webdriver.common.service.Service

Object that manages the starting and stopping of the ChromeDriver

__init__(executable_path, port=0, service_args=None, log_path=None, env=None)

Creates a new instance of the Service

Args:
  • executable_path : Path to the ChromeDriver
  • port : Port the service is running on
  • service_args : List of args to pass to the chromedriver service
  • log_path : Path for the chromedriver service to log to
command_line_args()

7.20. Remote WebDriver

The WebDriver implementation.

class selenium.webdriver.remote.webdriver.WebDriver(command_executor='http://127.0.0.1:4444/wd/hub', desired_capabilities=None, browser_profile=None, proxy=None, keep_alive=False, file_detector=None, options=None)

Bases: object

Controls a browser by sending commands to a remote server. This server is expected to be running the WebDriver wire protocol as defined at https://github.com/SeleniumHQ/selenium/wiki/JsonWireProtocol

Attributes:
  • session_id - String ID of the browser session started and controlled by this WebDriver.
  • capabilities - Dictionaty of effective capabilities of this browser session as returned
    by the remote server. See https://github.com/SeleniumHQ/selenium/wiki/DesiredCapabilities
  • command_executor - remote_connection.RemoteConnection object used to execute commands.
  • error_handler - errorhandler.ErrorHandler object used to handle errors.
__init__(command_executor='http://127.0.0.1:4444/wd/hub', desired_capabilities=None, browser_profile=None, proxy=None, keep_alive=False, file_detector=None, options=None)

Create a new driver that will issue commands using the wire protocol.

Args:
  • command_executor - Either a string representing URL of the remote server or a custom
    remote_connection.RemoteConnection object. Defaults to ‘http://127.0.0.1:4444/wd/hub’.
  • desired_capabilities - A dictionary of capabilities to request when
    starting the browser session. Required parameter.
  • browser_profile - A selenium.webdriver.firefox.firefox_profile.FirefoxProfile object.
    Only used if Firefox is requested. Optional.
  • proxy - A selenium.webdriver.common.proxy.Proxy object. The browser session will
    be started with given proxy settings, if possible. Optional.
  • keep_alive - Whether to configure remote_connection.RemoteConnection to use
    HTTP keep-alive. Defaults to False.
  • file_detector - Pass custom file detector object during instantiation. If None,
    then default LocalFileDetector() will be used.
  • options - instance of a driver options.Options class

Adds a cookie to your current session.

Args:
  • cookie_dict: A dictionary object, with required keys - “name” and “value”;
    optional keys - “path”, “domain”, “secure”, “expiry”
Usage:
driver.add_cookie({‘name’ : ‘foo’, ‘value’ : ‘bar’}) driver.add_cookie({‘name’ : ‘foo’, ‘value’ : ‘bar’, ‘path’ : ‘/’}) driver.add_cookie({‘name’ : ‘foo’, ‘value’ : ‘bar’, ‘path’ : ‘/’, ‘secure’:True})
back()

Goes one step backward in the browser history.

Usage:driver.back()
close()

Closes the current window.

Usage:driver.close()
create_web_element(element_id)

Creates a web element with the specified element_id.

delete_all_cookies()

Delete all cookies in the scope of the session.

Usage:driver.delete_all_cookies()

Deletes a single cookie with the given name.

Usage:driver.delete_cookie(‘my_cookie’)
execute(driver_command, params=None)

Sends a command to be executed by a command.CommandExecutor.

Args:
  • driver_command: The name of the command to execute as a string.
  • params: A dictionary of named parameters to send with the command.
Returns:

The command’s JSON response loaded into a dictionary object.

execute_async_script(script, *args)

Asynchronously Executes JavaScript in the current window/frame.

Args:
  • script: The JavaScript to execute.
  • *args: Any applicable arguments for your JavaScript.
Usage:

script = “var callback = arguments[arguments.length - 1]; ” “window.setTimeout(function(){ callback(‘timeout’) }, 3000);” driver.execute_async_script(script)

execute_script(script, *args)

Synchronously Executes JavaScript in the current window/frame.

Args:
  • script: The JavaScript to execute.
  • *args: Any applicable arguments for your JavaScript.
Usage:

driver.execute_script(‘return document.title;’)

file_detector_context(*args, **kwds)

Overrides the current file detector (if necessary) in limited context. Ensures the original file detector is set afterwards.

Example:

with webdriver.file_detector_context(UselessFileDetector):
someinput.send_keys(‘/etc/hosts’)
Args:
  • file_detector_class - Class of the desired file detector. If the class is different
    from the current file_detector, then the class is instantiated with args and kwargs and used as a file detector during the duration of the context manager.
  • args - Optional arguments that get passed to the file detector class during
    instantiation.
  • kwargs - Keyword arguments, passed the same way as args.
find_element(by='id', value=None)

‘Private’ method used by the find_element_by_* methods.

Usage:Use the corresponding find_element_by_* instead of this.
Return type:WebElement
find_element_by_class_name(name)

Finds an element by class name.

Args:
  • name: The class name of the element to find.
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

element = driver.find_element_by_class_name(‘foo’)

find_element_by_css_selector(css_selector)

Finds an element by css selector.

Args:
  • css_selector - CSS selector string, ex: ‘a.nav#home’
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

element = driver.find_element_by_css_selector(‘#foo’)

find_element_by_id(id_)

Finds an element by id.

Args:
  • id_ - The id of the element to be found.
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

element = driver.find_element_by_id(‘foo’)

Finds an element by link text.

Args:
  • link_text: The text of the element to be found.
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

element = driver.find_element_by_link_text(‘Sign In’)

find_element_by_name(name)

Finds an element by name.

Args:
  • name: The name of the element to find.
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

element = driver.find_element_by_name(‘foo’)

Finds an element by a partial match of its link text.

Args:
  • link_text: The text of the element to partially match on.
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

element = driver.find_element_by_partial_link_text(‘Sign’)

find_element_by_tag_name(name)

Finds an element by tag name.

Args:
  • name - name of html tag (eg: h1, a, span)
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

element = driver.find_element_by_tag_name(‘h1’)

find_element_by_xpath(xpath)

Finds an element by xpath.

Args:
  • xpath - The xpath locator of the element to find.
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

element = driver.find_element_by_xpath(‘//div/td[1]’)

find_elements(by='id', value=None)

‘Private’ method used by the find_elements_by_* methods.

Usage:Use the corresponding find_elements_by_* instead of this.
Return type:list of WebElement
find_elements_by_class_name(name)

Finds elements by class name.

Args:
  • name: The class name of the elements to find.
Returns:
  • list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not
Usage:

elements = driver.find_elements_by_class_name(‘foo’)

find_elements_by_css_selector(css_selector)

Finds elements by css selector.

Args:
  • css_selector - CSS selector string, ex: ‘a.nav#home’
Returns:
  • list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not
Usage:

elements = driver.find_elements_by_css_selector(‘.foo’)

find_elements_by_id(id_)

Finds multiple elements by id.

Args:
  • id_ - The id of the elements to be found.
Returns:
  • list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not
Usage:

elements = driver.find_elements_by_id(‘foo’)

Finds elements by link text.

Args:
  • link_text: The text of the elements to be found.
Returns:
  • list of webelement - a list with elements if any was found. an empty list if not
Usage:

elements = driver.find_elements_by_link_text(‘Sign In’)

find_elements_by_name(name)

Finds elements by name.

Args:
  • name: The name of the elements to find.
Returns:
  • list of webelement - a list with elements if any was found. an empty list if not
Usage:

elements = driver.find_elements_by_name(‘foo’)

Finds elements by a partial match of their link text.

Args:
  • link_text: The text of the element to partial match on.
Returns:
  • list of webelement - a list with elements if any was found. an empty list if not
Usage:

elements = driver.find_elements_by_partial_link_text(‘Sign’)

find_elements_by_tag_name(name)

Finds elements by tag name.

Args:
  • name - name of html tag (eg: h1, a, span)
Returns:
  • list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not
Usage:

elements = driver.find_elements_by_tag_name(‘h1’)

find_elements_by_xpath(xpath)

Finds multiple elements by xpath.

Args:
  • xpath - The xpath locator of the elements to be found.
Returns:
  • list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not
Usage:

elements = driver.find_elements_by_xpath(“//div[contains(@class, ‘foo’)]”)

forward()

Goes one step forward in the browser history.

Usage:driver.forward()
fullscreen_window()

Invokes the window manager-specific ‘full screen’ operation

get(url)

Loads a web page in the current browser session.

Get a single cookie by name. Returns the cookie if found, None if not.

Usage:driver.get_cookie(‘my_cookie’)
get_cookies()

Returns a set of dictionaries, corresponding to cookies visible in the current session.

Usage:driver.get_cookies()
get_log(log_type)

Gets the log for a given log type

Args:
  • log_type: type of log that which will be returned
Usage:

driver.get_log(‘browser’) driver.get_log(‘driver’) driver.get_log(‘client’) driver.get_log(‘server’)

get_screenshot_as_base64()
Gets the screenshot of the current window as a base64 encoded string
which is useful in embedded images in HTML.
Usage:driver.get_screenshot_as_base64()
get_screenshot_as_file(filename)
Saves a screenshot of the current window to a PNG image file. Returns
False if there is any IOError, else returns True. Use full paths in your filename.
Args:
  • filename: The full path you wish to save your screenshot to. This should end with a .png extension.
Usage:

driver.get_screenshot_as_file(‘/Screenshots/foo.png’)

get_screenshot_as_png()

Gets the screenshot of the current window as a binary data.

Usage:driver.get_screenshot_as_png()
get_window_position(windowHandle='current')

Gets the x,y position of the current window.

Usage:driver.get_window_position()
get_window_rect()

Gets the x, y coordinates of the window as well as height and width of the current window.

Usage:driver.get_window_rect()
get_window_size(windowHandle='current')

Gets the width and height of the current window.

Usage:driver.get_window_size()
implicitly_wait(time_to_wait)
Sets a sticky timeout to implicitly wait for an element to be found,
or a command to complete. This method only needs to be called one time per session. To set the timeout for calls to execute_async_script, see set_script_timeout.
Args:
  • time_to_wait: Amount of time to wait (in seconds)
Usage:

driver.implicitly_wait(30)

maximize_window()

Maximizes the current window that webdriver is using

minimize_window()

Invokes the window manager-specific ‘minimize’ operation

quit()

Quits the driver and closes every associated window.

Usage:driver.quit()
refresh()

Refreshes the current page.

Usage:driver.refresh()
save_screenshot(filename)
Saves a screenshot of the current window to a PNG image file. Returns
False if there is any IOError, else returns True. Use full paths in your filename.
Args:
  • filename: The full path you wish to save your screenshot to. This should end with a .png extension.
Usage:

driver.save_screenshot(‘/Screenshots/foo.png’)

set_page_load_timeout(time_to_wait)
Set the amount of time to wait for a page load to complete
before throwing an error.
Args:
  • time_to_wait: The amount of time to wait
Usage:

driver.set_page_load_timeout(30)

set_script_timeout(time_to_wait)
Set the amount of time that the script should wait during an
execute_async_script call before throwing an error.
Args:
  • time_to_wait: The amount of time to wait (in seconds)
Usage:

driver.set_script_timeout(30)

set_window_position(x, y, windowHandle='current')

Sets the x,y position of the current window. (window.moveTo)

Args:
  • x: the x-coordinate in pixels to set the window position
  • y: the y-coordinate in pixels to set the window position
Usage:

driver.set_window_position(0,0)

set_window_rect(x=None, y=None, width=None, height=None)

Sets the x, y coordinates of the window as well as height and width of the current window.

Usage:driver.set_window_rect(x=10, y=10) driver.set_window_rect(width=100, height=200) driver.set_window_rect(x=10, y=10, width=100, height=200)
set_window_size(width, height, windowHandle='current')

Sets the width and height of the current window. (window.resizeTo)

Args:
  • width: the width in pixels to set the window to
  • height: the height in pixels to set the window to
Usage:

driver.set_window_size(800,600)

start_client()

Called before starting a new session. This method may be overridden to define custom startup behavior.

start_session(capabilities, browser_profile=None)

Creates a new session with the desired capabilities.

Args:
  • browser_name - The name of the browser to request.
  • version - Which browser version to request.
  • platform - Which platform to request the browser on.
  • javascript_enabled - Whether the new session should support JavaScript.
  • browser_profile - A selenium.webdriver.firefox.firefox_profile.FirefoxProfile object. Only used if Firefox is requested.
stop_client()

Called after executing a quit command. This method may be overridden to define custom shutdown behavior.

switch_to_active_element()

Deprecated use driver.switch_to.active_element

switch_to_alert()

Deprecated use driver.switch_to.alert

switch_to_default_content()

Deprecated use driver.switch_to.default_content

switch_to_frame(frame_reference)

Deprecated use driver.switch_to.frame

switch_to_window(window_name)

Deprecated use driver.switch_to.window

application_cache

Returns a ApplicationCache Object to interact with the browser app cache

current_url

Gets the URL of the current page.

Usage:driver.current_url
current_window_handle

Returns the handle of the current window.

Usage:driver.current_window_handle
desired_capabilities

returns the drivers current desired capabilities being used

file_detector
log_types

Gets a list of the available log types

Usage:driver.log_types
mobile
name

Returns the name of the underlying browser for this instance.

Usage:name = driver.name
orientation

Gets the current orientation of the device

Usage:orientation = driver.orientation
page_source

Gets the source of the current page.

Usage:driver.page_source
switch_to
Returns:
  • SwitchTo: an object containing all options to switch focus into
Usage:

element = driver.switch_to.active_element alert = driver.switch_to.alert driver.switch_to.default_content() driver.switch_to.frame(‘frame_name’) driver.switch_to.frame(1) driver.switch_to.frame(driver.find_elements_by_tag_name(“iframe”)[0]) driver.switch_to.parent_frame() driver.switch_to.window(‘main’)

title

Returns the title of the current page.

Usage:title = driver.title
window_handles

Returns the handles of all windows within the current session.

Usage:driver.window_handles

7.21. Remote WebDriver WebElement

class selenium.webdriver.remote.webelement.WebElement(parent, id_, w3c=False)

Bases: object

Represents a DOM element.

Generally, all interesting operations that interact with a document will be performed through this interface.

All method calls will do a freshness check to ensure that the element reference is still valid. This essentially determines whether or not the element is still attached to the DOM. If this test fails, then an StaleElementReferenceException is thrown, and all future calls to this instance will fail.

__init__(parent, id_, w3c=False)
clear()

Clears the text if it’s a text entry element.

click()

Clicks the element.

find_element(by='id', value=None)

‘Private’ method used by the find_element_by_* methods.

Usage:Use the corresponding find_element_by_* instead of this.
Return type:WebElement
find_element_by_class_name(name)

Finds element within this element’s children by class name.

Args:
  • name: The class name of the element to find.
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

element = element.find_element_by_class_name(‘foo’)

find_element_by_css_selector(css_selector)

Finds element within this element’s children by CSS selector.

Args:
  • css_selector - CSS selector string, ex: ‘a.nav#home’
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

element = element.find_element_by_css_selector(‘#foo’)

find_element_by_id(id_)

Finds element within this element’s children by ID.

Args:
  • id_ - ID of child element to locate.
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

foo_element = element.find_element_by_id(‘foo’)

Finds element within this element’s children by visible link text.

Args:
  • link_text - Link text string to search for.
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

element = element.find_element_by_link_text(‘Sign In’)

find_element_by_name(name)

Finds element within this element’s children by name.

Args:
  • name - name property of the element to find.
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

element = element.find_element_by_name(‘foo’)

Finds element within this element’s children by partially visible link text.

Args:
  • link_text: The text of the element to partially match on.
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

element = element.find_element_by_partial_link_text(‘Sign’)

find_element_by_tag_name(name)

Finds element within this element’s children by tag name.

Args:
  • name - name of html tag (eg: h1, a, span)
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

element = element.find_element_by_tag_name(‘h1’)

find_element_by_xpath(xpath)

Finds element by xpath.

Args:
  • xpath - xpath of element to locate. “//input[@class=’myelement’]”

Note: The base path will be relative to this element’s location.

This will select the first link under this element.

myelement.find_element_by_xpath(".//a")

However, this will select the first link on the page.

myelement.find_element_by_xpath("//a")
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:

element = element.find_element_by_xpath(‘//div/td[1]’)

find_elements(by='id', value=None)

‘Private’ method used by the find_elements_by_* methods.

Usage:Use the corresponding find_elements_by_* instead of this.
Return type:list of WebElement
find_elements_by_class_name(name)

Finds a list of elements within this element’s children by class name.

Args:
  • name: The class name of the elements to find.
Returns:
  • list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not
Usage:

elements = element.find_elements_by_class_name(‘foo’)

find_elements_by_css_selector(css_selector)

Finds a list of elements within this element’s children by CSS selector.

Args:
  • css_selector - CSS selector string, ex: ‘a.nav#home’
Returns:
  • list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not
Usage:

elements = element.find_elements_by_css_selector(‘.foo’)

find_elements_by_id(id_)

Finds a list of elements within this element’s children by ID. Will return a list of webelements if found, or an empty list if not.

Args:
  • id_ - Id of child element to find.
Returns:
  • list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not
Usage:

elements = element.find_elements_by_id(‘foo’)

Finds a list of elements within this element’s children by visible link text.

Args:
  • link_text - Link text string to search for.
Returns:
  • list of webelement - a list with elements if any was found. an empty list if not
Usage:

elements = element.find_elements_by_link_text(‘Sign In’)

find_elements_by_name(name)

Finds a list of elements within this element’s children by name.

Args:
  • name - name property to search for.
Returns:
  • list of webelement - a list with elements if any was found. an empty list if not
Usage:

elements = element.find_elements_by_name(‘foo’)

Finds a list of elements within this element’s children by link text.

Args:
  • link_text: The text of the element to partial match on.
Returns:
  • list of webelement - a list with elements if any was found. an empty list if not
Usage:

elements = element.find_elements_by_partial_link_text(‘Sign’)

find_elements_by_tag_name(name)

Finds a list of elements within this element’s children by tag name.

Args:
  • name - name of html tag (eg: h1, a, span)
Returns:
  • list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not
Usage:

elements = element.find_elements_by_tag_name(‘h1’)

find_elements_by_xpath(xpath)

Finds elements within the element by xpath.

Args:
  • xpath - xpath locator string.

Note: The base path will be relative to this element’s location.

This will select all links under this element.

myelement.find_elements_by_xpath(".//a")

However, this will select all links in the page itself.

myelement.find_elements_by_xpath("//a")
Returns:
  • list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not
Usage:

elements = element.find_elements_by_xpath(“//div[contains(@class, ‘foo’)]”)

get_attribute(name)

Gets the given attribute or property of the element.

This method will first try to return the value of a property with the given name. If a property with that name doesn’t exist, it returns the value of the attribute with the same name. If there’s no attribute with that name, None is returned.

Values which are considered truthy, that is equals “true” or “false”, are returned as booleans. All other non-None values are returned as strings. For attributes or properties which do not exist, None is returned.

Args:
  • name - Name of the attribute/property to retrieve.

Example:

# Check if the "active" CSS class is applied to an element.
is_active = "active" in target_element.get_attribute("class")
get_property(name)

Gets the given property of the element.

Args:
  • name - Name of the property to retrieve.

Example:

text_length = target_element.get_property("text_length")
is_displayed()

Whether the element is visible to a user.

is_enabled()

Returns whether the element is enabled.

is_selected()

Returns whether the element is selected.

Can be used to check if a checkbox or radio button is selected.

screenshot(filename)
Saves a screenshot of the current element to a PNG image file. Returns
False if there is any IOError, else returns True. Use full paths in your filename.
Args:
  • filename: The full path you wish to save your screenshot to. This should end with a .png extension.
Usage:

element.screenshot(‘/Screenshots/foo.png’)

send_keys(*value)

Simulates typing into the element.

Args:
  • value - A string for typing, or setting form fields. For setting file inputs, this could be a local file path.

Use this to send simple key events or to fill out form fields:

form_textfield = driver.find_element_by_name('username')
form_textfield.send_keys("admin")

This can also be used to set file inputs.

file_input = driver.find_element_by_name('profilePic')
file_input.send_keys("path/to/profilepic.gif")
# Generally it's better to wrap the file path in one of the methods
# in os.path to return the actual path to support cross OS testing.
# file_input.send_keys(os.path.abspath("path/to/profilepic.gif"))
submit()

Submits a form.

value_of_css_property(property_name)

The value of a CSS property.

id

Internal ID used by selenium.

This is mainly for internal use. Simple use cases such as checking if 2 webelements refer to the same element, can be done using ==:

if element1 == element2:
    print("These 2 are equal")
location

The location of the element in the renderable canvas.

location_once_scrolled_into_view

THIS PROPERTY MAY CHANGE WITHOUT WARNING. Use this to discover where on the screen an element is so that we can click it. This method should cause the element to be scrolled into view.

Returns the top lefthand corner location on the screen, or None if the element is not visible.

parent

Internal reference to the WebDriver instance this element was found from.

rect

A dictionary with the size and location of the element.

screenshot_as_base64

Gets the screenshot of the current element as a base64 encoded string.

Usage:img_b64 = element.screenshot_as_base64
screenshot_as_png

Gets the screenshot of the current element as a binary data.

Usage:element_png = element.screenshot_as_png
size

The size of the element.

tag_name

This element’s tagName property.

text

The text of the element.

7.22. Remote WebDriver Command

class selenium.webdriver.remote.command.Command

Bases: object

Defines constants for the standard WebDriver commands.

While these constants have no meaning in and of themselves, they are used to marshal commands through a service that implements WebDriver’s remote wire protocol:

ACCEPT_ALERT = 'acceptAlert'
CLEAR_APP_CACHE = 'clearAppCache'
CLEAR_ELEMENT = 'clearElement'
CLEAR_LOCAL_STORAGE = 'clearLocalStorage'
CLEAR_SESSION_STORAGE = 'clearSessionStorage'
CLICK = 'mouseClick'
CLICK_ELEMENT = 'clickElement'
CLOSE = 'close'
CONTEXT_HANDLES = 'getContextHandles'
CURRENT_CONTEXT_HANDLE = 'getCurrentContextHandle'
DELETE_ALL_COOKIES = 'deleteAllCookies'
DELETE_SESSION = 'deleteSession'
DISMISS_ALERT = 'dismissAlert'
DOUBLE_CLICK = 'mouseDoubleClick'
DOUBLE_TAP = 'touchDoubleTap'
ELEMENT_EQUALS = 'elementEquals'
ELEMENT_SCREENSHOT = 'elementScreenshot'
EXECUTE_ASYNC_SCRIPT = 'executeAsyncScript'
EXECUTE_SCRIPT = 'executeScript'
EXECUTE_SQL = 'executeSql'
FIND_CHILD_ELEMENT = 'findChildElement'
FIND_CHILD_ELEMENTS = 'findChildElements'
FIND_ELEMENT = 'findElement'
FIND_ELEMENTS = 'findElements'
FLICK = 'touchFlick'
FULLSCREEN_WINDOW = 'fullscreenWindow'
GET = 'get'
GET_ACTIVE_ELEMENT = 'getActiveElement'
GET_ALERT_TEXT = 'getAlertText'
GET_ALL_COOKIES = 'getCookies'
GET_ALL_SESSIONS = 'getAllSessions'
GET_APP_CACHE = 'getAppCache'
GET_APP_CACHE_STATUS = 'getAppCacheStatus'
GET_AVAILABLE_LOG_TYPES = 'getAvailableLogTypes'
GET_CURRENT_URL = 'getCurrentUrl'
GET_CURRENT_WINDOW_HANDLE = 'getCurrentWindowHandle'
GET_ELEMENT_ATTRIBUTE = 'getElementAttribute'
GET_ELEMENT_LOCATION = 'getElementLocation'
GET_ELEMENT_LOCATION_ONCE_SCROLLED_INTO_VIEW = 'getElementLocationOnceScrolledIntoView'
GET_ELEMENT_PROPERTY = 'getElementProperty'
GET_ELEMENT_RECT = 'getElementRect'
GET_ELEMENT_SIZE = 'getElementSize'
GET_ELEMENT_TAG_NAME = 'getElementTagName'
GET_ELEMENT_TEXT = 'getElementText'
GET_ELEMENT_VALUE = 'getElementValue'
GET_ELEMENT_VALUE_OF_CSS_PROPERTY = 'getElementValueOfCssProperty'
GET_LOCAL_STORAGE_ITEM = 'getLocalStorageItem'
GET_LOCAL_STORAGE_KEYS = 'getLocalStorageKeys'
GET_LOCAL_STORAGE_SIZE = 'getLocalStorageSize'
GET_LOCATION = 'getLocation'
GET_LOG = 'getLog'
GET_NETWORK_CONNECTION = 'getNetworkConnection'
GET_PAGE_SOURCE = 'getPageSource'
GET_SCREEN_ORIENTATION = 'getScreenOrientation'
GET_SESSION_STORAGE_ITEM = 'getSessionStorageItem'
GET_SESSION_STORAGE_KEYS = 'getSessionStorageKeys'
GET_SESSION_STORAGE_SIZE = 'getSessionStorageSize'
GET_TITLE = 'getTitle'
GET_WINDOW_HANDLES = 'getWindowHandles'
GET_WINDOW_POSITION = 'getWindowPosition'
GET_WINDOW_RECT = 'getWindowRect'
GET_WINDOW_SIZE = 'getWindowSize'
GO_BACK = 'goBack'
GO_FORWARD = 'goForward'
IMPLICIT_WAIT = 'implicitlyWait'
IS_ELEMENT_DISPLAYED = 'isElementDisplayed'
IS_ELEMENT_ENABLED = 'isElementEnabled'
IS_ELEMENT_SELECTED = 'isElementSelected'
LONG_PRESS = 'touchLongPress'
MAXIMIZE_WINDOW = 'windowMaximize'
MINIMIZE_WINDOW = 'minimizeWindow'
MOUSE_DOWN = 'mouseButtonDown'
MOUSE_UP = 'mouseButtonUp'
MOVE_TO = 'mouseMoveTo'
NEW_SESSION = 'newSession'
QUIT = 'quit'
REFRESH = 'refresh'
REMOVE_LOCAL_STORAGE_ITEM = 'removeLocalStorageItem'
REMOVE_SESSION_STORAGE_ITEM = 'removeSessionStorageItem'
SCREENSHOT = 'screenshot'
SEND_KEYS_TO_ACTIVE_ELEMENT = 'sendKeysToActiveElement'
SEND_KEYS_TO_ELEMENT = 'sendKeysToElement'
SET_ALERT_CREDENTIALS = 'setAlertCredentials'
SET_ALERT_VALUE = 'setAlertValue'
SET_ELEMENT_SELECTED = 'setElementSelected'
SET_LOCAL_STORAGE_ITEM = 'setLocalStorageItem'
SET_LOCATION = 'setLocation'
SET_NETWORK_CONNECTION = 'setNetworkConnection'
SET_SCREEN_ORIENTATION = 'setScreenOrientation'
SET_SCRIPT_TIMEOUT = 'setScriptTimeout'
SET_SESSION_STORAGE_ITEM = 'setSessionStorageItem'
SET_TIMEOUTS = 'setTimeouts'
SET_WINDOW_POSITION = 'setWindowPosition'
SET_WINDOW_RECT = 'setWindowRect'
SET_WINDOW_SIZE = 'setWindowSize'
SINGLE_TAP = 'touchSingleTap'
STATUS = 'status'
SUBMIT_ELEMENT = 'submitElement'
SWITCH_TO_CONTEXT = 'switchToContext'
SWITCH_TO_FRAME = 'switchToFrame'
SWITCH_TO_PARENT_FRAME = 'switchToParentFrame'
SWITCH_TO_WINDOW = 'switchToWindow'
TOUCH_DOWN = 'touchDown'
TOUCH_MOVE = 'touchMove'
TOUCH_SCROLL = 'touchScroll'
TOUCH_UP = 'touchUp'
UPLOAD_FILE = 'uploadFile'
W3C_ACCEPT_ALERT = 'w3cAcceptAlert'
W3C_ACTIONS = 'actions'
W3C_CLEAR_ACTIONS = 'clearActionState'
W3C_DISMISS_ALERT = 'w3cDismissAlert'
W3C_EXECUTE_SCRIPT = 'w3cExecuteScript'
W3C_EXECUTE_SCRIPT_ASYNC = 'w3cExecuteScriptAsync'
W3C_GET_ACTIVE_ELEMENT = 'w3cGetActiveElement'
W3C_GET_ALERT_TEXT = 'w3cGetAlertText'
W3C_GET_CURRENT_WINDOW_HANDLE = 'w3cGetCurrentWindowHandle'
W3C_GET_WINDOW_HANDLES = 'w3cGetWindowHandles'
W3C_GET_WINDOW_POSITION = 'w3cGetWindowPosition'
W3C_GET_WINDOW_SIZE = 'w3cGetWindowSize'
W3C_MAXIMIZE_WINDOW = 'w3cMaximizeWindow'
W3C_SET_ALERT_VALUE = 'w3cSetAlertValue'
W3C_SET_WINDOW_POSITION = 'w3cSetWindowPosition'
W3C_SET_WINDOW_SIZE = 'w3cSetWindowSize'

7.23. Remote WebDriver Error Handler

class selenium.webdriver.remote.errorhandler.ErrorCode

Bases: object

Error codes defined in the WebDriver wire protocol.

ELEMENT_CLICK_INTERCEPTED = [64, 'element click intercepted']
ELEMENT_IS_NOT_SELECTABLE = [15, 'element not selectable']
ELEMENT_NOT_INTERACTABLE = [60, 'element not interactable']
ELEMENT_NOT_VISIBLE = [11, 'element not visible']
IME_ENGINE_ACTIVATION_FAILED = [31, 'ime engine activation failed']
IME_NOT_AVAILABLE = [30, 'ime not available']
INSECURE_CERTIFICATE = ['insecure certificate']
INVALID_ARGUMENT = [61, 'invalid argument']
INVALID_COORDINATES = ['invalid coordinates']
INVALID_ELEMENT_COORDINATES = [29, 'invalid element coordinates']
INVALID_ELEMENT_STATE = [12, 'invalid element state']
INVALID_SELECTOR = [32, 'invalid selector']
INVALID_SESSION_ID = ['invalid session id']
INVALID_XPATH_SELECTOR = [51, 'invalid selector']
INVALID_XPATH_SELECTOR_RETURN_TYPER = [52, 'invalid selector']
JAVASCRIPT_ERROR = [17, 'javascript error']
METHOD_NOT_ALLOWED = [405, 'unsupported operation']
MOVE_TARGET_OUT_OF_BOUNDS = [34, 'move target out of bounds']
NO_ALERT_OPEN = [27, 'no such alert']
NO_SUCH_ELEMENT = [7, 'no such element']
NO_SUCH_FRAME = [8, 'no such frame']
NO_SUCH_WINDOW = [23, 'no such window']
SCRIPT_TIMEOUT = [28, 'script timeout']
SESSION_NOT_CREATED = [33, 'session not created']
STALE_ELEMENT_REFERENCE = [10, 'stale element reference']
SUCCESS = 0
TIMEOUT = [21, 'timeout']
UNABLE_TO_CAPTURE_SCREEN = [63, 'unable to capture screen']
UNEXPECTED_ALERT_OPEN = [26, 'unexpected alert open']
UNKNOWN_COMMAND = [9, 'unknown command']
UNKNOWN_ERROR = [13, 'unknown error']
UNKNOWN_METHOD = ['unknown method exception']
XPATH_LOOKUP_ERROR = [19, 'invalid selector']
class selenium.webdriver.remote.errorhandler.ErrorHandler

Bases: object

Handles errors returned by the WebDriver server.

check_response(response)

Checks that a JSON response from the WebDriver does not have an error.

Args:
  • response - The JSON response from the WebDriver server as a dictionary object.
Raises:

If the response contains an error message.

7.24. Remote WebDriver Mobile

class selenium.webdriver.remote.mobile.Mobile(driver)

Bases: object

class ConnectionType(mask)

Bases: object

__init__(mask)
airplane_mode
data
wifi
__init__(driver)
set_network_connection(network)

Set the network connection for the remote device.

Example of setting airplane mode:

driver.mobile.set_network_connection(driver.mobile.AIRPLANE_MODE)
AIRPLANE_MODE = <selenium.webdriver.remote.mobile.ConnectionType object>
ALL_NETWORK = <selenium.webdriver.remote.mobile.ConnectionType object>
DATA_NETWORK = <selenium.webdriver.remote.mobile.ConnectionType object>
WIFI_NETWORK = <selenium.webdriver.remote.mobile.ConnectionType object>
context

returns the current context (Native or WebView).

contexts

returns a list of available contexts

network_connection

7.25. Remote WebDriver Remote Connection

class selenium.webdriver.remote.remote_connection.HttpErrorHandler

Bases: urllib2.HTTPDefaultErrorHandler

A custom HTTP error handler.

Used to return Response objects instead of raising an HTTPError exception.

http_error_default(req, fp, code, msg, headers)

Default HTTP error handler.

Args:
  • req - The original Request object.
  • fp - The response body file object.
  • code - The HTTP status code returned by the server.
  • msg - The HTTP status message returned by the server.
  • headers - The response headers.
Returns:

A new Response object.

class selenium.webdriver.remote.remote_connection.RemoteConnection(remote_server_addr, keep_alive=False, resolve_ip=True)

Bases: object

A connection with the Remote WebDriver server.

Communicates with the server using the WebDriver wire protocol: https://github.com/SeleniumHQ/selenium/wiki/JsonWireProtocol

__init__(remote_server_addr, keep_alive=False, resolve_ip=True)
execute(command, params)

Send a command to the remote server.

Any path subtitutions required for the URL mapped to the command should be included in the command parameters.

Args:
  • command - A string specifying the command to execute.
  • params - A dictionary of named parameters to send with the command as its JSON payload.
classmethod get_remote_connection_headers(parsed_url, keep_alive=False)

Get headers for remote request.

Args:
  • parsed_url - The parsed url
  • keep_alive (Boolean) - Is this a keep-alive connection (default: False)
classmethod get_timeout()
Returns:Timeout value in seconds for all http requests made to the Remote Connection
classmethod reset_timeout()

Reset the http request timeout to socket._GLOBAL_DEFAULT_TIMEOUT

classmethod set_timeout(timeout)

Override the default timeout

Args:
  • timeout - timeout value for http requests in seconds
class selenium.webdriver.remote.remote_connection.Request(url, data=None, method=None)

Bases: urllib2.Request

Extends the url_request.Request to support all HTTP request types.

__init__(url, data=None, method=None)

Initialise a new HTTP request.

Args:
  • url - String for the URL to send the request to.
  • data - Data to send with the request.
get_method()

Returns the HTTP method used by this request.

class selenium.webdriver.remote.remote_connection.Response(fp, code, headers, url)

Bases: object

Represents an HTTP response.

__init__(fp, code, headers, url)

Initialise a new Response.

Args:
  • fp - The response body file object.
  • code - The HTTP status code returned by the server.
  • headers - A dictionary of headers returned by the server.
  • url - URL of the retrieved resource represented by this Response.
close()

Close the response body file object.

geturl()

Returns the URL for the resource returned in this response.

info()

Returns the response headers.

7.26. Remote WebDriver Utils

selenium.webdriver.remote.utils.dump_json(json_struct)
selenium.webdriver.remote.utils.format_json(json_struct)
selenium.webdriver.remote.utils.get_root_parent(elem)
selenium.webdriver.remote.utils.handle_find_element_exception(e)
selenium.webdriver.remote.utils.load_json(s)
selenium.webdriver.remote.utils.return_value_if_exists(resp)
selenium.webdriver.remote.utils.unzip_to_temp_dir(zip_file_name)

Unzip zipfile to a temporary directory.

The directory of the unzipped files is returned if success, otherwise None is returned.

7.27. Internet Explorer WebDriver

class selenium.webdriver.ie.webdriver.WebDriver(executable_path='IEDriverServer.exe', capabilities=None, port=0, timeout=30, host=None, log_level=None, log_file=None, options=None, ie_options=None)

Bases: selenium.webdriver.remote.webdriver.WebDriver

Controls the IEServerDriver and allows you to drive Internet Explorer

__init__(executable_path='IEDriverServer.exe', capabilities=None, port=0, timeout=30, host=None, log_level=None, log_file=None, options=None, ie_options=None)

Creates a new instance of the chrome driver.

Starts the service and then creates new instance of chrome driver.

Args:
  • executable_path - path to the executable. If the default is used it assumes the executable is in the $PATH
  • capabilities: capabilities Dictionary object
  • port - port you would like the service to run, if left as 0, a free port will be found.
  • log_level - log level you would like the service to run.
  • log_file - log file you would like the service to log to.
  • options: IE Options instance, providing additional IE options
create_options()
quit()

7.28. Android WebDriver

class selenium.webdriver.android.webdriver.WebDriver(host='localhost', port=4444, desired_capabilities={'platform': 'ANDROID', 'browserName': 'android', 'version': ''})

Bases: selenium.webdriver.remote.webdriver.WebDriver

Simple RemoteWebDriver wrapper to start connect to Selendroid’s WebView app

For more info on getting started with Selendroid http://selendroid.io/mobileWeb.html

__init__(host='localhost', port=4444, desired_capabilities={'platform': 'ANDROID', 'browserName': 'android', 'version': ''})

Creates a new instance of Selendroid using the WebView app

Args:
  • host - location of where selendroid is running
  • port - port that selendroid is running on
  • desired_capabilities: Dictionary object with capabilities

7.29. Opera WebDriver

class selenium.webdriver.opera.webdriver.OperaDriver(executable_path=None, port=0, options=None, service_args=None, desired_capabilities=None, service_log_path=None, opera_options=None)

Bases: selenium.webdriver.chrome.webdriver.WebDriver

Controls the new OperaDriver and allows you to drive the Opera browser based on Chromium.

__init__(executable_path=None, port=0, options=None, service_args=None, desired_capabilities=None, service_log_path=None, opera_options=None)

Creates a new instance of the operadriver.

Starts the service and then creates new instance of operadriver.

Args:
  • executable_path - path to the executable. If the default is used
    it assumes the executable is in the $PATH
  • port - port you would like the service to run, if left as 0,
    a free port will be found.
  • desired_capabilities: Dictionary object with non-browser specific capabilities only, such as “proxy” or “loggingPref”.
  • options: this takes an instance of ChromeOptions
create_options()
class selenium.webdriver.opera.webdriver.WebDriver(desired_capabilities=None, executable_path=None, port=0, service_log_path=None, service_args=None, options=None)

Bases: selenium.webdriver.opera.webdriver.OperaDriver

class ServiceType
CHROMIUM = 2
__init__(desired_capabilities=None, executable_path=None, port=0, service_log_path=None, service_args=None, options=None)

7.30. PhantomJS WebDriver

class selenium.webdriver.phantomjs.webdriver.WebDriver(executable_path='phantomjs', port=0, desired_capabilities={'platform': 'ANY', 'browserName': 'phantomjs', 'version': '', 'javascriptEnabled': True}, service_args=None, service_log_path=None)

Bases: selenium.webdriver.remote.webdriver.WebDriver

Wrapper to communicate with PhantomJS through Ghostdriver.

You will need to follow all the directions here: https://github.com/detro/ghostdriver

__init__(executable_path='phantomjs', port=0, desired_capabilities={'platform': 'ANY', 'browserName': 'phantomjs', 'version': '', 'javascriptEnabled': True}, service_args=None, service_log_path=None)

Creates a new instance of the PhantomJS / Ghostdriver.

Starts the service and then creates new instance of the driver.

Args:
  • executable_path - path to the executable. If the default is used it assumes the executable is in the $PATH
  • port - port you would like the service to run, if left as 0, a free port will be found.
  • desired_capabilities: Dictionary object with non-browser specific capabilities only, such as “proxy” or “loggingPref”.
  • service_args : A List of command line arguments to pass to PhantomJS
  • service_log_path: Path for phantomjs service to log to.
quit()

Closes the browser and shuts down the PhantomJS executable that is started when starting the PhantomJS

7.31. PhantomJS WebDriver Service

class selenium.webdriver.phantomjs.service.Service(executable_path, port=0, service_args=None, log_path=None)

Bases: selenium.webdriver.common.service.Service

Object that manages the starting and stopping of PhantomJS / Ghostdriver

__init__(executable_path, port=0, service_args=None, log_path=None)

Creates a new instance of the Service

Args:
  • executable_path : Path to PhantomJS binary
  • port : Port the service is running on
  • service_args : A List of other command line options to pass to PhantomJS
  • log_path: Path for PhantomJS service to log to
command_line_args()
send_remote_shutdown_command()
service_url

Gets the url of the GhostDriver Service

7.32. Safari WebDriver

class selenium.webdriver.safari.webdriver.WebDriver(port=0, executable_path='/usr/bin/safaridriver', desired_capabilities={'platform': 'MAC', 'browserName': 'safari', 'version': ''}, quiet=False)

Bases: selenium.webdriver.remote.webdriver.WebDriver

Controls the SafariDriver and allows you to drive the browser.

__init__(port=0, executable_path='/usr/bin/safaridriver', desired_capabilities={'platform': 'MAC', 'browserName': 'safari', 'version': ''}, quiet=False)

Creates a new instance of the Safari driver.

Starts the service and then creates new instance of Safari Driver.

Args:
  • port - port you would like the service to run, if left as 0, a free port will be found.
  • desired_capabilities: Dictionary object with desired capabilities (Can be used to provide various Safari switches).
  • quiet - set to True to suppress stdout and stderr of the driver
quit()

Closes the browser and shuts down the SafariDriver executable that is started when starting the SafariDriver

7.33. Safari WebDriver Service

class selenium.webdriver.safari.service.Service(executable_path, port=0, quiet=False)

Bases: selenium.webdriver.common.service.Service

Object that manages the starting and stopping of the SafariDriver

__init__(executable_path, port=0, quiet=False)

Creates a new instance of the Service

Args:
  • executable_path : Path to the SafariDriver
  • port : Port the service is running on
command_line_args()
service_url

Gets the url of the SafariDriver Service

7.34. Select Support

class selenium.webdriver.support.select.Select(webelement)

Bases: object

__init__(webelement)

Constructor. A check is made that the given element is, indeed, a SELECT tag. If it is not, then an UnexpectedTagNameException is thrown.

Args:
  • webelement - element SELECT element to wrap
Example:

from selenium.webdriver.support.ui import Select

Select(driver.find_element_by_tag_name(“select”)).select_by_index(2)

deselect_all()

Clear all selected entries. This is only valid when the SELECT supports multiple selections. throws NotImplementedError If the SELECT does not support multiple selections

deselect_by_index(index)

Deselect the option at the given index. This is done by examing the “index” attribute of an element, and not merely by counting.

Args:
  • index - The option at this index will be deselected

throws NoSuchElementException If there is no option with specisied index in SELECT

deselect_by_value(value)

Deselect all options that have a value matching the argument. That is, when given “foo” this would deselect an option like:

<option value=”foo”>Bar</option>
Args:
  • value - The value to match against

throws NoSuchElementException If there is no option with specisied value in SELECT

deselect_by_visible_text(text)

Deselect all options that display text matching the argument. That is, when given “Bar” this would deselect an option like:

<option value=”foo”>Bar</option>

Args:
  • text - The visible text to match against
select_by_index(index)

Select the option at the given index. This is done by examing the “index” attribute of an element, and not merely by counting.

Args:
  • index - The option at this index will be selected

throws NoSuchElementException If there is no option with specisied index in SELECT

select_by_value(value)

Select all options that have a value matching the argument. That is, when given “foo” this would select an option like:

<option value=”foo”>Bar</option>

Args:
  • value - The value to match against

throws NoSuchElementException If there is no option with specisied value in SELECT

select_by_visible_text(text)

Select all options that display text matching the argument. That is, when given “Bar” this would select an option like:

<option value=”foo”>Bar</option>
Args:
  • text - The visible text to match against

throws NoSuchElementException If there is no option with specisied text in SELECT

all_selected_options

Returns a list of all selected options belonging to this select tag

first_selected_option

The first selected option in this select tag (or the currently selected option in a normal select)

options

Returns a list of all options belonging to this select tag

7.35. Wait Support

class selenium.webdriver.support.wait.WebDriverWait(driver, timeout, poll_frequency=0.5, ignored_exceptions=None)

Bases: object

__init__(driver, timeout, poll_frequency=0.5, ignored_exceptions=None)

Constructor, takes a WebDriver instance and timeout in seconds.

Args:
  • driver - Instance of WebDriver (Ie, Firefox, Chrome or Remote)
  • timeout - Number of seconds before timing out
  • poll_frequency - sleep interval between calls By default, it is 0.5 second.
  • ignored_exceptions - iterable structure of exception classes ignored during calls. By default, it contains NoSuchElementException only.
Example:

from selenium.webdriver.support.ui import WebDriverWait

element = WebDriverWait(driver, 10).until(lambda x: x.find_element_by_id(“someId”))

is_disappeared = WebDriverWait(driver, 30, 1, (ElementNotVisibleException)).

until_not(lambda x: x.find_element_by_id(“someId”).is_displayed())
until(method, message='')

Calls the method provided with the driver as an argument until the return value is not False.

until_not(method, message='')

Calls the method provided with the driver as an argument until the return value is False.

7.36. Color Support

class selenium.webdriver.support.color.Color(red, green, blue, alpha=1)

Bases: object

Color conversion support class

Example:

from selenium.webdriver.support.color import Color

print(Color.from_string('#00ff33').rgba)
print(Color.from_string('rgb(1, 255, 3)').hex)
print(Color.from_string('blue').rgba)
__init__(red, green, blue, alpha=1)
static from_string(str_)
hex
rgb
rgba

7.37. Event Firing WebDriver Support

class selenium.webdriver.support.event_firing_webdriver.EventFiringWebDriver(driver, event_listener)

Bases: object

A wrapper around an arbitrary WebDriver instance which supports firing events

__init__(driver, event_listener)

Creates a new instance of the EventFiringWebDriver

Args:
  • driver : A WebDriver instance
  • event_listener : Instance of a class that subclasses AbstractEventListener and implements it fully or partially

Example:

from selenium.webdriver import Firefox
from selenium.webdriver.support.events import EventFiringWebDriver, AbstractEventListener

class MyListener(AbstractEventListener):
    def before_navigate_to(self, url, driver):
        print("Before navigate to %s" % url)
    def after_navigate_to(self, url, driver):
        print("After navigate to %s" % url)

driver = Firefox()
ef_driver = EventFiringWebDriver(driver, MyListener())
ef_driver.get("http://www.google.co.in/")
back()
close()
execute_async_script(script, *args)
execute_script(script, *args)
find_element(by='id', value=None)
find_element_by_class_name(name)
find_element_by_css_selector(css_selector)
find_element_by_id(id_)
find_element_by_name(name)
find_element_by_tag_name(name)
find_element_by_xpath(xpath)
find_elements(by='id', value=None)
find_elements_by_class_name(name)
find_elements_by_css_selector(css_selector)
find_elements_by_id(id_)
find_elements_by_name(name)
find_elements_by_tag_name(name)
find_elements_by_xpath(xpath)
forward()
get(url)
quit()
wrapped_driver

Returns the WebDriver instance wrapped by this EventsFiringWebDriver

class selenium.webdriver.support.event_firing_webdriver.EventFiringWebElement(webelement, ef_driver)

Bases: object

” A wrapper around WebElement instance which supports firing events

__init__(webelement, ef_driver)

Creates a new instance of the EventFiringWebElement

clear()
click()
find_element(by='id', value=None)
find_element_by_class_name(name)
find_element_by_css_selector(css_selector)
find_element_by_id(id_)
find_element_by_name(name)
find_element_by_tag_name(name)
find_element_by_xpath(xpath)
find_elements(by='id', value=None)
find_elements_by_class_name(name)
find_elements_by_css_selector(css_selector)
find_elements_by_id(id_)
find_elements_by_name(name)
find_elements_by_tag_name(name)
find_elements_by_xpath(xpath)
send_keys(*value)
wrapped_element

Returns the WebElement wrapped by this EventFiringWebElement instance

7.38. Abstract Event Listener Support

class selenium.webdriver.support.abstract_event_listener.AbstractEventListener

Bases: object

Event listener must subclass and implement this fully or partially

after_change_value_of(element, driver)
after_click(element, driver)
after_close(driver)
after_execute_script(script, driver)
after_find(by, value, driver)
after_navigate_back(driver)
after_navigate_forward(driver)
after_navigate_to(url, driver)
after_quit(driver)
before_change_value_of(element, driver)
before_click(element, driver)
before_close(driver)
before_execute_script(script, driver)
before_find(by, value, driver)
before_navigate_back(driver)
before_navigate_forward(driver)
before_navigate_to(url, driver)
before_quit(driver)
on_exception(exception, driver)

7.39. Expected conditions Support

class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.alert_is_present

Bases: object

Expect an alert to be present.

__init__()
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.element_located_selection_state_to_be(locator, is_selected)

Bases: object

An expectation to locate an element and check if the selection state specified is in that state. locator is a tuple of (by, path) is_selected is a boolean

__init__(locator, is_selected)
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.element_located_to_be_selected(locator)

Bases: object

An expectation for the element to be located is selected. locator is a tuple of (by, path)

__init__(locator)
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.element_selection_state_to_be(element, is_selected)

Bases: object

An expectation for checking if the given element is selected. element is WebElement object is_selected is a Boolean.”

__init__(element, is_selected)
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.element_to_be_clickable(locator)

Bases: object

An Expectation for checking an element is visible and enabled such that you can click it.

__init__(locator)
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.element_to_be_selected(element)

Bases: object

An expectation for checking the selection is selected. element is WebElement object

__init__(element)
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.frame_to_be_available_and_switch_to_it(locator)

Bases: object

An expectation for checking whether the given frame is available to switch to. If the frame is available it switches the given driver to the specified frame.

__init__(locator)
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.invisibility_of_element_located(locator)

Bases: object

An Expectation for checking that an element is either invisible or not present on the DOM.

locator used to find the element

__init__(locator)
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.new_window_is_opened(current_handles)

Bases: object

An expectation that a new window will be opened and have the number of windows handles increase

__init__(current_handles)
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.number_of_windows_to_be(num_windows)

Bases: object

An expectation for the number of windows to be a certain value.

__init__(num_windows)
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.presence_of_all_elements_located(locator)

Bases: object

An expectation for checking that there is at least one element present on a web page. locator is used to find the element returns the list of WebElements once they are located

__init__(locator)
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.presence_of_element_located(locator)

Bases: object

An expectation for checking that an element is present on the DOM of a page. This does not necessarily mean that the element is visible. locator - used to find the element returns the WebElement once it is located

__init__(locator)
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.staleness_of(element)

Bases: object

Wait until an element is no longer attached to the DOM. element is the element to wait for. returns False if the element is still attached to the DOM, true otherwise.

__init__(element)
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.text_to_be_present_in_element(locator, text_)

Bases: object

An expectation for checking if the given text is present in the specified element. locator, text

__init__(locator, text_)
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.text_to_be_present_in_element_value(locator, text_)

Bases: object

An expectation for checking if the given text is present in the element’s locator, text

__init__(locator, text_)
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.title_contains(title)

Bases: object

An expectation for checking that the title contains a case-sensitive substring. title is the fragment of title expected returns True when the title matches, False otherwise

__init__(title)
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.title_is(title)

Bases: object

An expectation for checking the title of a page. title is the expected title, which must be an exact match returns True if the title matches, false otherwise.

__init__(title)
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.url_changes(url)

Bases: object

An expectation for checking the current url. url is the expected url, which must not be an exact match returns True if the url is different, false otherwise.

__init__(url)
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.url_contains(url)

Bases: object

An expectation for checking that the current url contains a case-sensitive substring. url is the fragment of url expected, returns True when the title matches, False otherwise

__init__(url)
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.url_matches(pattern)

Bases: object

An expectation for checking the current url. pattern is the expected pattern, which must be an exact match returns True if the title matches, false otherwise.

__init__(pattern)
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.url_to_be(url)

Bases: object

An expectation for checking the current url. url is the expected url, which must be an exact match returns True if the title matches, false otherwise.

__init__(url)
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.visibility_of(element)

Bases: object

An expectation for checking that an element, known to be present on the DOM of a page, is visible. Visibility means that the element is not only displayed but also has a height and width that is greater than 0. element is the WebElement returns the (same) WebElement once it is visible

__init__(element)
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.visibility_of_all_elements_located(locator)

Bases: object

An expectation for checking that all elements are present on the DOM of a page and visible. Visibility means that the elements are not only displayed but also has a height and width that is greater than 0. locator - used to find the elements returns the list of WebElements once they are located and visible

__init__(locator)
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.visibility_of_any_elements_located(locator)

Bases: object

An expectation for checking that there is at least one element visible on a web page. locator is used to find the element returns the list of WebElements once they are located

__init__(locator)
class selenium.webdriver.support.expected_conditions.visibility_of_element_located(locator)

Bases: object

An expectation for checking that an element is present on the DOM of a page and visible. Visibility means that the element is not only displayed but also has a height and width that is greater than 0. locator - used to find the element returns the WebElement once it is located and visible

__init__(locator)